The Roman legionary was a professional soldier of the Roman army after the Marian reforms. Legionaries had to be Roman citizens under the age of 45. On the march in unfriendly terrain, the legionary would be loaded down with armour commonly lorica hamata, lorica squamata, or 1st-3rd century lorica segmentata, shield (scutum), helmet (galea), two javelins (one heavy pilum and one light verutum), a short sword (gladius), a dagger (pugio), a pair of heavy sandals (caligae), a sarcina (marching pack), about fourteen days' worth of food, a waterskin (bladder for posca), cooking equipment, two stakes (sudes murale) for the construction of palisades, and a shovel or wicker basket.
The Roman soldier underwent especially rigorous training; discipline was the base of the army's success, and the soldiers were relentlessly and constantly trained with weapons and especially with drill — forced marches with full load and in tight formation were frequent. Discipline was important and infractions were heavily punished by the centurions. However, honours, rewards and promotions were frequently awarded to legionaries who distinguished themselves in battle or through exemplary service.
This is the recently released (badly produced) ACI 1/6 scale Roman legionary 12-inch figure. Everything was WRONG with this figure the moment it came out of the box - the catch and the bracket broke from the lorica segmentata armor, one of the ear flaps of the helmet fell off, the sword blade remained in the scabbard / sheath when the handle / hilt was pulled. The pilum (heavy javelin used by the Roman legionnaires) does not connect to the handle at all - it comes as two separate pieces - and keep falling off (would not stay fastened). I've had my share and bad experiences with 12-inch figures but this latest figure was really a PAIN to put together. The lorica segmentata armor just keep coming loose and refused to stay in place every time I posed the figure for shots / photography.
So I ended up with a "battle-damaged" ACI Toys "Total Rome!" 1/6 scale Roman Legionary Optio 12-inch action figure. In this instance, I chose to display the Roman legionary wearing the galea (helmet) without the crest and holding the full body shield (scutum) in one hand with the Hasta (spear) in the other hand. Scroll down to see the pictures. Click on them for bigger and better views.
The legions of the Roman Republic and Empire wore fairly standardized dress and armor. The Galea was the soldier's helmet. The focale (scarf) was worn by the Roman legionary to protect the neck from chafing caused by constant contact with the soldier's armor. A tunic was worn under the armor (in this instance, it's the Lorica segmentata or segmented armour). There was also the Pteruges: skirt of leather or fabric strips that is worn around the waist to protect the upper legs. Pteruges could be fitted with small metal studs and plates to provide additional protection.
The full body shield and spear, used by the Roman military with extreme efficiency and effectiveness.
The baldric was a belt worn over one shoulder that is typically used to carry a weapon (usually a sword) or other implement such as a bugle or drum. Braccae (trousers), was popular among Roman legionaries stationed in cooler climates to the north of southern Italy. Caligae, heavy-soled military shoes or sandals were worn by Roman legionary soldiers and auxiliaries throughout the history of the Roman Republic and Empire.
Scroll down to see close-up views / pictures of the ACI 1/6 scale Roman Gallic helmet (galea)
The Gauls were the peoples who most impacted the design of the Roman helmet hence the popular "Imperial Gallic" type helmets. In addition to this, it is commonly thought that the Gauls also introduced chainmail to the Romans.
NEXT post: Check out this ACI Toys "Total Rome!" 1/6 scale Roman Legionary (battle damaged) 12-inch figure with the red crest and brandishing his sword (gladius).